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Mandukya

The Mandukya Upanishad is the shortest of the Upanishads. It has twelve verses, which mainly elaborates on AUM, the word most celestial to Hindus. Muktikopanishad, which discusses other Upanishads give high marks to Mandukya Upanishad by saying that the Mandukya Upanishad alone is enough for salvation.

The name Mandukya may seem bit strange as the word manduk literally means Frog in Sanskrit. It is however believed that this Upanishad is attributed to a sage called Manduka, son of Manduki. His name is mentioned in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad along with the Mandukeyas, his disciples. The Mandukeyas also appears in the Bhagavata Purana as the receivers of a branch of the Rig Veda from Indra. So literates have reasons to believe it is connected with this great seer.

Mandukya Upanishad is important because it digs deep on the most auspicious word to Hindus - AUM. AUM is made of three mātrās or letters : ‘a’, ‘u’ and ‘m’. The ‘a’ stands for the state of wakefulness (जागृत/जाग्रत अवस्था), that we experience with our mind and indriyas or sense organs. The ‘u’ stands for the dream state (स्वप्नावस्था). The third state is the state of deep sleep (सुषुप्तावस्था /सुषुप्ति अवस्था), represented by the sound ‘m’, in which there is no desire and consciousness. Mandukya Upanishad throws light on a fourth, turiya avastha (तुरीय अवस्था/तुर्यावस्था), which is above all and is unseen, unthinkable and unnameable. This fourth state corresponds to silence.

Here, we have put Mandukya Upanishad verses in Sanskrit alongwith its English transliteration and Yogeshwarji's translation in Gujarati poem from his unpublished book 'Dus Upanishads'. It is further aided by articles from his book 'Upanishad nu Amrut'.